(39) Dave Baggett’s answer to Programming Interviews: What’s the hardest bug you’ve debugged? – QuoraAh, the joys – and pains – of finding what looks like a software bug… lies in hardware.
I’m working on a hardware project at the moment that’s more complex than a basic microcontroller-build that I could have implemented with an Arduino. So I’ve been using a Raspberry Pi as the centre of the project, and writing my code in the high-level languages I’m most proficient in. (In this case, Ruby).
As the project nears completion, it’s really important that the device doesn’t manifest as a computer in any way: it’s just a physical object. To that end, I’d like all the software inside the miniature computer to run at startup without any manual intervention.
My Pi is running Raspbian – the Pi-focused version of Debian – so, fortunately, there’s a tool easily available to do that for us: upstart.
We’ll write an upstart configuration for our script, which will turn our script into an upstart service, which we can then start at login.
First, let’s install upstart:
sudo apt-get install upstart
This will issue some warnings, because – on my install – it was replacing the traditional
init.d setup. Don’t worry; everything will continue to work.
Once you’ve installed upstart, reboot your Pi, either from the command line or with a power-cycle.
Let’s now make an upstart config file. Here’s a very basic one:
Put this code into
/etc/init/myscript.conf. You should then be able to run the script by typing
sudo start myscript, and kill it with
sudo stop myscript. And, of course, you’ll discover it’ll start automatically on startup.
That’s a very simple example, with no dependencies. But that won’t work for the script I’d like to use. In this example, I’m running a Ruby script (using the Pi Piper library) that blinks an LED attached to GPIO Pin 17. That script needs to be run as root to get access to the GPIO pins, and it needs to reference the directory’s Gemfile. Upstart scripts are run as root, so that’s not an issue – but we need to set up the environment correctly. That’s not so hard:
As you can see, we just have to export the
BUNDLE_GEMFILE variable so that Bundler will know where the Gemfile is located.
Also, you’re going to have to make sure that all references to files in your code are done with absolute paths. That wasn’t a problem with the simple shell script example, but becomes an issue with more real-world type code – especially the program I’m ultimately running, which has various includes, dependencies, and data files to load. An obvious place you’ll run into this with Ruby is when setting up the
Rather than starting my Ruby script
$LOAD_PATH << 'lib'
I had to do this:
$LOAD_PATH << File.expand_path(File.dirname(__FILE__)) + '/lib'
And similarly, any other references to file loading will need to be absolute – and, ideally, derived using tricks like
File.dirname(__FILE__) rather than through hardcoded paths.
Anyhow: it took me a while to piece together, but now that I have, it felt worth writing down – because I’ve now got reasonable complex computation-backed hardware working in an entirely headless enclosure – and one that’s resilient to power-cycling.
I don’t mean to say that design isn’t important — it still is an absolutely critical element to a product, and good design and attention to detail will enable a startup to charge more for a product and differentiate themselves from competitors. Apple has raised the bar very high for design and user experience, and users will judge your product accordingly. But it’s important to keep in mind that your true bar for comparison is other startups, and not Apple; and if your chief competitor is Apple, you either need your own billion dollars of cash to invest in product design, or you need to rethink your strategy."